The longest-lived exploration vehicle for the Red Planet is the Mars Odyssey probe, which recently celebrated its anniversary. For 20 years now, he has been circling the planet and surveying its various parts. In honor of this event, NASA published a unique collage in which the red Mars suddenly appears in completely different colors.
Strictly speaking, these are not real shades, but a graphic processing of a thermal map of dunes on the surface of Mars near the north pole of the planet. The data is collected by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), which studies how different areas on a surface heat up and cool down during daylight hours. This allows them to determine their physical properties, and also helps geologists study the composition of the Martian soil.
The program painted areas with low temperatures blue, and areas heated in the sun with gold. The bizarre shape of these dunes is believed to be the merit of Martian dust storms. The closer to the pole, the more such formations are found. The image clearly shows that the terrain is very heterogeneous and the layers of dunes are now and then interspersed with deep depressions, the bottom of which almost always remains in the shade and is not heated by the Sun.