At the initiative of the United States, eight states approved a document called “Artemis Accords” (Artemis Agreement), which lays the foundations for the future architecture of the space base “Gateway” (Project Gateway) and the principles of lunar exploration. The name of the agreements is a direct reference to the Artemis mission, in which NASA plans to land the first colonists-explorers on the moon in 2024.
There are 10 principles in the Agreements:
1. All lunar projects must be exclusively peaceful in nature
2. The activities of the signatories should be transparent, no confusion should be allowed
3. Applied technologies and systems must be compatible for mutual cooperation.
4. Participants undertake to provide each other with emergency assistance
5. Anyone who has not yet signed the Convention on the Registration of Space Objects must do so.
6. All received scientific data must be published in the interests of world science
7. It is necessary to preserve space heritage – what has already been done
8. Extraction of resources at space objects is carried out in accordance with the Outer Space Treaty
9. Countries undertake not to harm each other and not to arrange conflicts in space
10. All are committed to the safe disposal of space debris
In addition to the United States itself, the document was approved by Great Britain and Japan, there are signatures of representatives of Canada and Australia, Italy and the United Arab Emirates agreed to approve it. It is noteworthy that the “great space power” Luxembourg was included in the list, but there is neither Germany, nor France, nor even a hint of approval from the ESA. And also there is indicatively no Russia and China – the first agreed only to the possible connection of its module to the Gates, and the Chinese completely accused the Americans of trying to install their sovereignty.